Multipath fading has for many years been a problem for mobile communication engineers, to be overcome by designing systems that have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) margins. The fading is caused by multiple reflections in walls and ceilings (indoors) or cars and buildings (outdoors) that add constructively or destructively at the location of the terminal or base station antennas.
The global system for mobile communications (GSM) and third generation (3G) both require fading margins of 20–30 dB to provide good voice quality at most locations in the cell…
Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio and Cellular Technology (2009)
ISBN10: 1420072102, ISBN13: 9781420072105
Chapter 12: Measuring Performance of 3GPP LTE Terminals and Small Base Stations in Reverberation Chambers